The midfielder was sent off by referee Guido Winkmann in the 23rd minute of TSG's match with Bayer 04 Leverkusen last Saturday, after bringing down Stefan Kießling in the area.
The three-match ban comes after the DFB classified Polanski as a repeat offender. The Poland international also saw red in the first half of the season whilst still playing for Mainz 05. TSG 1899 Hoffenheim appealed the ban but it was turned down.
The 27-year-old will next be available for TSG in their 34th and final game of the Bundesliga season when they travel to Borussia Dortmund.